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Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 1983 - 2012.
Preliminary Archaeological Reports

Archaeological Excavation Report

Capidava | Commune: Topalu | County: Constanţa | Site: Cetate | Excavation Year: 2009

Excavation Year   2009
Epoch
Bronze Age;
Hallstatt;
Latene;
Early Roman (1st - 3rd cent.);
Late Roman (4th - 7th cent.);
Late Migrations Period (7th - 11th cent.);
Early Medieval;
Late Medieval;
Modern
Periods
Bronze Age;
Late Bronze Age;
Hallstatt;
Early Hallstatt;
Middle Hallstatt;
La Tène;
Early La Tène;
Middle La Tène;
Late La Tène;
Early Roman Period;
Late Roman Period;
Roman-Byzantine Period;
Byzantine Period;
Migrations Period;
Middle Medieval Period;
Early Medieval Period;
Modern Age
Site Category
Defence;
Domestic;
Industrial;
Religious, Ritual and Funerary;
Unassigned
Site Types
Habitation;
Civil habitation;
Open settlement;
Fortified settlement;
Urban settlement;
Rural settlement;
Military habitation;
Camp;
Citadel;
Fort;
Fortifications;
Cult/religious structure;
Church;
Funerary find;
Cemetery;
Plane cemetery;
Tumular cemetery;
Isolated grave;
Tumular grave;
Isolated find;
Isolated object;
Exploitation/quarry;
Quarry
Map it   Find it on the Romanian map
County / District  Constanţa
Locality   Capidava
Commune   Topalu
Site  Cetate
Site Sector Sectorul de est (sectoarele II, IV, V intra muros)
Site name   Capadiva
Persons involved and Institutions
Last nameFirst nameroleInstitution
Achim Irina Adriana
Beldiman Corneliu
Covacef Zaharia
Dobrinescu Cătălin
Ene Daniel Lucian
Miron Costin
Munteanu Florentin
Opriş Ioan Carol
Pinter Zeno-Karl
Potârniche Tiberiu
Raţiu Alexandru-Mircea
Sion Anişoara
Ştefan Călin Dan
Ştefan Maria Magdalena
Stoian Gabriel
Sztancs Diana Maria
Urduzia Claudia
National Arch. Record Site Code 63063.01
Report Cercetările arheologice efectuate în sectorul de E s-au concentrat într-un singur obiectiv: încăperea C16, componentă a edificiului romano bizantin din sectorul de E (aflat, conform caroiajului general al cetăţii în c.N-O-P 76, adosat curtinei de SE).
Scurta descriere a situaţiei arheologice. Campania de cercetare desfăşurată în cetatea romano-bizantină şi medieval timpurie Capidava, sectorul de E, din toamna anului 2009, s-a derulat in intervalul 8 - 23 septembrie. Cercetarea şi-a propus continuarea săpăturii din anul precedent precum şi clarificarea situaţiei din încăperea C.16, parte componenta a edificiului romano-bizantin plasat în sectorul de E. In campania 2008, săpăturile efectuate în această încăpere au oferit un material ceramic bogat, constând in fragmente de amfore, căni şi opaiţe, numeroase fragmente de sticlă (fragmente de pahare şi candele) precum şi o situaţie arheologică deosebită, distrugerea romano-bizantină fiind acoperită de dărâmătura zidului de incinta. După îndepărtarea resturilor de dărâmătura au fost înregistrate rezultatele mai sus amintite, săpătura finalizându-se la adâncimea de -1,45 m. De la această cotă a debutat campania 2009. In cadrul campaniei din anul 2008, deşi săpătura s-a desfăşurat în suprafaţa, pe latura de SE a incaperii C.16 a fost crutata o portiune dreptunghiulara din ratiuni de conservare a zidului de incinta. La începutul campaniei din acest an am demontat această suprafaţă, totul reducându-se la un profil stratigrafic. Apoi am realizat săpătura arheologică, secţionând încăperea C.16 pe direcţia SE-NV până la adâncimea de -1,75 m, adâncime la care nivelul de distrugere pare a se încheia. Dupa această etapă am efectuat secţionarea transversală şi în jumătatea de NE a încăperii C.16 obţinând pe centrul acesteia un microprofil stratigrafic. In această zona ne-am oprit la adâncimea de -1,80 m. In colţul sud-estic al încăperii se prefigurează existenţa unui canal de scurgere care va face obiectul investigaţiilor din campanile viitoare. In acest context, din raţiuni de protectie şi pentru evitarea riscului de surpare am preferat ca la sfârşitul campaniei să acoperim total excavaţia desfăşurată în septembrie 2009.
Revenind la situaţia înregistrată în încăperea C16, materialul arheologic descoperit în nivelul de distrugere romano-bizantin s-a dovedit extrem de bogat. Au fost recuperate foarte multe fragmente ceramice provenite de la amfore de tip LR1, LR4 precum şi amfore de tip pontic. Deasemenea, au fost descoperite foarte multe fragmente provenind de la vase de bucătărie (oale cu două torţi) căni şi fragmente de urcioare. Pe lângă toate acestea un număr însemnat de opaiţe (42 de piese) întregi sau fragmentare, în cea mai mare parte de „tip dunărean" precum şi multe alte fragmente fără conexiune. De asemenea au fost descoperite şi numeroase fragmente de platouri şi farfurii aparţinând categoriei African Red Slip Ware, precum şi un fragment dintr-un vas de tipul Late Roman Unguentaria. Pe lângă toate acestea un număr deosebit de mare de fragmente de pahare şi candele de sticlă.
Deşi campania 2009 s-a finalizat recent iar majoritatea materialului se afla în curs de restaurare şi conservare, se pot trage totuşi câteva concluzii pertinente, în acest stadiul al lucrării. In primul rând abundenţa materialului ceramic întregibil ne îndeamnă să credem că avem de-a face cu un posibil depozit/magazie. De asemenea, în absenţa informaţiilor numismatice, încă in curs de verificare, distrugerea în cauză s-ar plasa în linii generale în intervalul 550-600, pe baza fragmentelor ceramice descoperite, în special a celor de tipul African Red Slip. Toate acestea reprezintă însă ipoteze de lucru care vor fi validate sau infirmate de valorificarea justă a întregului material arheologic descoperit precum şi de viitoarele cercetări. [Zaharia Covacef, Tiberiu Potârniche]
Abstract other lang.
Abstract   The research campaign carried out in the eastern sector of the Roman-Byzantine and early medieval fortress at Capidava during the autumn of 2009 intended to continue the excavations from the previous year and at the same time to clarify the functional aspects regarding the room C16, which is a component of an important Roman-Byzantine edifice of the sector.
The archaeological digging was executed from the surface down to a depth of 1.75 m and only one stratigraphic microprofile was preserved on the SE-NW direction. The possibility that in the SE corner of the room might have functioned a drainage canal is quite strong.
The archaeological material uncovered within the Roman-Byzantine destruction level was extremely rich. Quite a large number of fragments belonging to the LR 1 and LR 4 amphora types were unearthed together with several other Pontic amphorae. Besides these a significant number of lamps (42 pieces), intact or fragmentary, were also found; most of them belong to the „Danubian type". At the same time numerous fragments of plates of African Red Slip Ware type, as well as a fragment from the Late Roman Unguentaria type have been discovered. In addition to these ceramic finds, a large number of glass and glass lamp fragments were also unearthed.
The abundance of reconstructible pottery lets us assume that here possibly functioned a warehouse/ storage facility. Moreover, in the absence of numismatic information, which is currently being verified, the destruction level can be placed roughly in the interval 550 - 600 A.D. on the basis of the ceramic fragments, especially those belonging to the African Red Slip type category.
Bibliography
Bibliographic notes
Source   Cronica cercetărilor arheologice din România
Editor   CIMEC
Language   RO
1-sectorul-I-biserica
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 1-sectorul-I-biserica.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/1-sectorul-I-biserica/fig-1.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/fig 1.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-1.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-2.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-3.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-4.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
3-sector-de-est
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 3-sector-de-est.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/3-sector-de-est/sector-est-C-16.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/fig2.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-1.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-2.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-3.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-4.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-5.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-6.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
5-sector-VIII
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 5-sector-VIII.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/5-sector-VIII/fig3.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 5-sector-VIII.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/5-sector-VIII/Pl-I.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 5-sector-VIII.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/5-sector-VIII/Pl-II.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
6-sector-X
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-I.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-II.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-III.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-IV.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-V.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
7-raport-interdisciplinar
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/10-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-X.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/1-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-I.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/2-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-II.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/3-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-III.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/4-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-IV.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/5-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-V.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/6-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-VI.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/7-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-VII.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/8-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-VIII.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/9-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-IX.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
8-Capidava-IMDA
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 8-Capidava-IMDA.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/8-Capidava-IMDA/1-Beldiman-Sztancs-Capidava-2009.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 8-Capidava-IMDA.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/8-Capidava-IMDA/2-Beldiman-Sztancs-Capidava-2009.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 8-Capidava-IMDA.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/8-Capidava-IMDA/3-Beldiman-Sztancs-Capidava-2009.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>



Copyright: the authors of the reports and the National Heritage Institute, CIMEC, 2018.
Coordinating: Bogdan Şandric. Documentary - analysts: Iuliana Damian, Oana Borlean, Adriana Vîlcu. Consultant: Irina Oberländer Târnoveanu. ASP, HTML design: Cosmin Miu