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Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 1983 - 2012.
Preliminary Archaeological Reports

Archaeological Excavation Report

Capidava | Commune: Topalu | County: Constanţa | Site: Cetate | Excavation Year: 2009

Excavation Year   2009
Epoch
Bronze Age;
Hallstatt;
Latene;
Early Roman (1st - 3rd cent.);
Late Roman (4th - 7th cent.);
Late Migrations Period (7th - 11th cent.);
Early Medieval;
Late Medieval;
Modern
Periods
Bronze Age;
Late Bronze Age;
Hallstatt;
Early Hallstatt;
Middle Hallstatt;
La Tène;
Early La Tène;
Middle La Tène;
Late La Tène;
Early Roman Period;
Late Roman Period;
Roman-Byzantine Period;
Byzantine Period;
Migrations Period;
Middle Medieval Period;
Early Medieval Period;
Modern Age
Site Category
Defence;
Domestic;
Industrial;
Religious, Ritual and Funerary;
Unassigned
Site Types
Habitation;
Civil habitation;
Open settlement;
Fortified settlement;
Urban settlement;
Rural settlement;
Military habitation;
Camp;
Citadel;
Fort;
Fortifications;
Cult/religious structure;
Church;
Funerary find;
Cemetery;
Plane cemetery;
Tumular cemetery;
Isolated grave;
Tumular grave;
Isolated find;
Isolated object;
Exploitation/quarry;
Quarry
Map it   Find it on the Romanian map
County / District  Constanţa
Locality   Capidava
Commune   Topalu
Site  Cetate
Site Sector Sector III intra muros, via principalis
Site name   Capadiva
Persons involved and Institutions
Last nameFirst nameroleInstitution
Achim Irina Adriana
Beldiman Corneliu
Covacef Zaharia
Dobrinescu Cătălin
Ene Daniel Lucian
Miron Costin
Munteanu Florentin
Opriş Ioan Carol
Pinter Zeno-Karl
Potârniche Tiberiu
Raţiu Alexandru-Mircea
Sion Anişoara
Ştefan Călin Dan
Ştefan Maria Magdalena
Stoian Gabriel
Sztancs Diana Maria
Urduzia Claudia
National Arch. Record Site Code 63063.01
Report Obiectivul principal al cercetării stabilit pentru sectorul Via Principalis în campania 2009 a fost reprezentat de degajarea traseului străzii romane ce mergea de la porta principalis către interiorul fortificaţiei. Degajarea amintită conduce la înţelegerea modului în care edificiile adiacente străzii se articulează faţă de aceasta, precum şi identificarea şi înregistrarea potenţialelor structuri de locuire succedente nivelului străzii. Nu în ultimul rând, degajarea străzii principale a fortificaţiei urmăreşte delimitarea unei zone coerente şi inteligibile pentru întreaga suprafaţă de S şi E a cetăţii (sectoarele de est, III, VI şi VII intra muros), în vederea valorificării culturale a monumentului.
Careul R-S72. Cercetarea în acest careu s-a desfăşurat în ultima perioadă a campaniei (dimensiunile suprafeţei săpate fiind de 4 x 4 m, în axul străzii şi în continuarea carourilor excavate în acest sector în campaniile precedente. În cursul săpăturii, a fost recoltat material ceramic puternic fragmentar, încadrat cronologic în perioada romană târzie şi medievală, precum şi resturi osteologice. Săpătura în acest careu nu a putut fi finalizată, urmând a fi reluată în campania de anul viitor.
Careul R-S73. La o adâncime de 1,10 m faţă de colţul de SV al C1/1994 a fost surprinsă o amenajare, ce iniţial a fost interpretată ca reprezentând ceea ce s-a mai păstrat din zidurile perimetrale ale unui bordei, dar care nu a putut fi surprinsă şi în profilul sudic al secţiunii. Mai mult, la acest nivel nu a fost localizat nici un nivel de călcare.
În urma săpăturii, a putut fi identificat un zid cu o lungime de 3,80 m, orientat S - N, la o adâncime de 1,12 m faţă de profilul nordic şi 1,06 m faţă de cel sudic, realizat din piatră legată cu pământ. Pe o lungime de 2,36 m faţă de profilul nordic, zidul a fost afectat de o intervenţie, în urma căreia una dintre feţe a fot demantelat. Ulterior zidul a fost utilizat pentru a alcătui unul dintre pereţii perimetrali ai unui bordei medieval, ce nu a putut fi identificat in totalitate, ultimul fiind secţionat anterior în timpul săpăturilor realizate anterior în sectorul de E (dr. Zaharia Covacef). Astfel, lungimea bordeiului în careul R-S73 este de 2,5 m, dar limita sa nordică poate fi surprinsă în profilul vestic al suprafeţei deschise în sectorul de E la aproximativ 2,25 m faţă de colţul de NE al S-R73. Coroborând aceste date, rezultă o lungime totală a acestui bordei de cca. 4,85 m. În interiorul bordeiului, cercetările au evidenţiat, la o adâncime de 1,12 m faţă de profilul nordic o amenajare care a servit ca vatră sau cuptor, surprinsă şi în profilul de N pe o înălţime de 0,75 m, ce prezenta numeroase fragmente ceramice şi de lemn calcinat. La V de zidul identificat, cercetările s-au oprit la o adâncime de 1,06 m faţă de profilul de N şi 1,08 m faţă de profilul de S, pe un nivel reprezentat de un pământ galben, puternic solidificat, suprapus peste dalajul de piatră al străzii, identificat de altfel şi în celelalte secţiuni.
Martor R-S74-75. În urma demontării acestui martor situat perpendicular pe stradă, am putut observa o stratigrafie valabilă pentru întregul traseu al străzii, cu două niveluri principale separate de un pat de piatră, suprapuse pe un nivel de pământ galben, puternic solidificat, identificat la o adâncime de 1,20 m faţă de colţul de SV al C1/1994 şi care sigilează pavajul de piatră.
Martor R-S 75-76.La o adâncime de 0,84 m în raport cu colţul de SV al C1/1994 a fost evidenţiat un pat de piatră, cu fragmente de mici dimensiuni, care eventual ar fi putut servi ca substrucţie pentru linia de vagoneţi utilizată de Gr. Florescu pentru evacuarea pământului. La o adâncime de 1,41 m faţă de colţul de SV al C1-1994 a fost observat acelaşi nivel de pământ galben, compactat, având cca. 0,08 m grosime şi care foarte probabil poate fi pus în legătură cu ultimul nivel de locuire romană, databil la sfârşitul secolului VI - începutul secolului VII p.Chr. Din acest nivel au fost recoltate fragmente ceramice şi osteologice, sticlă şi piroane de fier. După îndepărtarea acestui nivel, s-a ajuns pe dalajul de piatră al străzii şi s-a evidenţiat cu această ocazie, pe latura estică, rigola (trotuarul) amplasată de-a lungul aliniamentului străzii, realizat din dale de piatră de dimensiuni mari. Din punct de vedere stratigrafic, principalele niveluri surprinse sunt următoarele: un strat de pământ roşiatic, nisipos, cu urme de mortar, fragmente de cărămidă şi numeroase fragmente ceramice, urmat de un strat cenuşiu, sfărâmicios, cu fragmente litice de dimensiuni medii. Între cele două niveluri este interpus patul de piatră amintit anterior. [C. Opriş, Gabriel Stoian, Florentin Munteanu]
Abstract other lang.
Abstract   The main objective of the excavations carried out in the sector of Via Principalis during the 2009 campaign was to uncover the main Roman road that began from porta principalis continuing throughout the fortification. This approach helps us understand the manner in which the buildings adjacent to the main road were arranged allowing also the identification and recording of the potential structures of habitation that succeeded the level of the road. Last but not least, the excavation of the main road of the fortification gives us a coherent and intelligible perspective over the entire surface from the south-eastern part of the citadel (eastern sectors, III, VI and VII intra muros), in order to allow a cultural exploitation of the fortification.
The excavations were carried out in two squares (R-S 72, R-S 73) each of 4x4m, the baulks R-S 74-75 and R-S 75-76 being also dismantled.
From R-S 72 that was not studied entirely during the 2009 campaign, there have been extracted ceramic fragments dating from the Late Roman period to the Middle Ages as well as bone remains.
In R-S 73 we identified a wall of 3.80 m length, oriented N-S, at a depth of 1.12 m from the northern profile and 1.06 m from the southern one made of stone and earth. On a length of 2.36 m versus the northern profile, the wall was damaged by an intervention following which one of its faces was dismantled. Afterwards the wall was used as a wall for a medieval cottage (4.85m in length) that could not have been totally identified because it had been sectioned during the previous excavations carried out in the eastern sector (dr. Zaharia Covacef). Inside the cottage the there has been identified a structure that served as a hearth that could be observed also in the northern profile on a height of 0.75 m, having numerous ceramic fragments and calcified wood.
After the dismantling of R-S 74-75 and R-S 75-76 baulks the stratigraphic sequences were identified as follows: a layer of red earth, sandy, with mortar traces, tile fragments and numerous pottery fragments followed by a grey layer with stone fragments of medium sizes between which was interposed a compact layer of stone.
Bibliography
Bibliographic notes
Source   Cronica cercetărilor arheologice din România
Editor   CIMEC
Language   RO
1-sectorul-I-biserica
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 1-sectorul-I-biserica.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/1-sectorul-I-biserica/fig-1.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/fig 1.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-1.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-2.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-3.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/2-sector-I-incinta-carouri-J-56-J 57/pl-4.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
3-sector-de-est
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 3-sector-de-est.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/3-sector-de-est/sector-est-C-16.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/fig2.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-1.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-2.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-3.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-4.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-5.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/4-sector-III-C1-1994-via-principalis/pl-6.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
5-sector-VIII
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 5-sector-VIII.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/5-sector-VIII/fig3.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 5-sector-VIII.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/5-sector-VIII/Pl-I.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 5-sector-VIII.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/5-sector-VIII/Pl-II.JPG' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
6-sector-X
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-I.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-II.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-III.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-IV.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 6-sector-X.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/6-sector-X/PL-V.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
7-raport-interdisciplinar
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/10-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-X.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/1-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-I.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/2-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-II.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/3-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-III.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/4-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-IV.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/5-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-V.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/6-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-VI.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/7-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-VII.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/8-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-VIII.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 7-raport-interdisciplinar.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/7-raport-interdisciplinar/9-Stefan-Capidava-cercetari-interdisciplinare-Pl-IX.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>
8-Capidava-IMDA
Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 8-Capidava-IMDA.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/8-Capidava-IMDA/1-Beldiman-Sztancs-Capidava-2009.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 8-Capidava-IMDA.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/8-Capidava-IMDA/2-Beldiman-Sztancs-Capidava-2009.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a> Chronicle of the Archaeological Excavations in Romania, 2009 Campaign. Report no. 11, Capidava, Cetate.<br /> Sector 8-Capidava-IMDA.<br /><a href='http://foto.cimec.ro/cronica/2009/sistematice\011/8-Capidava-IMDA/3-Beldiman-Sztancs-Capidava-2009.jpg' target=_blank>Display the same picture in a new window</a>



Copyright: the authors of the reports and the National Heritage Institute, CIMEC, 2018.
Coordinating: Bogdan Şandric. Documentary - analysts: Iuliana Damian, Oana Borlean, Adriana Vîlcu. Consultant: Irina Oberländer Târnoveanu. ASP, HTML design: Cosmin Miu