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Cronica cercetărilor arheologice din România, 1983 - 2012.
Rapoarte preliminare de cercetare arheologică

Raport de cercetare arheologică

Jucu de Sus | Judeţ: Cluj | Punct: Râtul boilor (parcul industrial TETAROM III) | Anul: 2015

Anul   2015
Epoca
Epoca medievală timpurie (sec. VII-XIII)
Perioade
Epoca medievală timpurie
Categorie
Religios, ritual şi funerar
Tipuri de sit
Necropolă
Localizare pe hartă   Localizează pe harta României
Judet   Cluj
Localitate   Jucu de Sus
Comuna   Jucu
Punct
Râtul boilor (parcul industrial TETAROM III)
Sector   
Toponim   
Persoane implicate și instituții
NumePrenumerolInstituție
Hunt Katie Transylvania Bioarchaeology
Ogden Nick Transylvania Bioarchaeology
Oliverson Megan Transylvania Bioarchaeology
Snyder Jordan Transylvania Bioarchaeology
Stanciu Ioan responsabil Institutul de Arheologie şi Istoria Artei, Cluj-Napoca
Tschinkel Khrystyne Transylvania Bioarchaeology
Tucker Katie Transylvania Bioarchaeology
Cod RAN    58268.04
Raport Introduction
This report details the work carried out on the site of Jucu de Sus, Cluj, Transylvania, Romania, between the 6th July and the 8th August 2015. The co-directors of the excavation were Dr Katie Tucker (Transylvania Bioarchaology) and Dr Ioan Stanciu (Institute of Archaeology and Art History, Cluj-Napoca). The assistant director was Katie Hunt, the project assistants were Jordan Snyder and Nick Ogden (Transylvania Bioarchaeology) and the team leaders were Khrystyne Tschinkel and Megan Oliverson (Transylvania Bioarchaeology). The remaining project team was composed of field- school students, mostly from academic institutions in the UK, USA and Canada.

Project Background
The site of Jucu de Sus is located 21km north east of Cluj- Napoca and is situated on the floodplain, west of the Someşul Mic River. Was first identified and partially excavated in 2007 prior to the construction of an industrial park (Tetarom III), with a Roman period villa rustica, two separate early medieval settlements (dating to the 8th – the first half of the 9th and 11th – 12th centuries), and their corresponding cemeteries which were located in and around the abandoned Roman building (25). In the campaign of 2007 eighty inhumation burials were excavated from the cemetery that are thought, on the basis of the associated artefacts (bronze S-shaped temple rings and glass beads) to be associated with the 11th–12th century settlement, although human remains associated with the 8th – the first half of the 9th century settlement have also been identified in the form of nine cremation burials, in urns, which appeared to be located around the periphery of the inhumation cemetery. A preliminary analysis has already been undertaken on the inhumation burials, which identified individuals belonging to all age groups from infant to mature adult, and both males and females. A number of pathological conditions were also identified, including dental disease, degenerative joint disease, metabolic disease, infectious disease and trauma (26). In the year 2014 a project was initiated (“Jucu – archaeological and bioarchaeological researches”), through collaboration between Institute of Archaeology and History of Art (Romanian Academy) and Transylvania Bioarchaeology. The 2014 season of excavation recovered the remains of ten individuals, with the skeletal analysis being undertaken during the 2015 season. The re-analysis of the remains from the 2007 excavation was also started during the season and will continue in 2016.

The Site
The excavation during the 2015 season aimed to target the same area as that explored by the 2014 season, in order to ensure complete excavation of all features within the area before a new excavation area was opened. At the completion of the 2014 season, the wooden peg marking the south-west corner of the trench (roughly corresponding to a point 550E and 320N on the previous site grid (exact location, as determined by GPS, of 407337.76E and 598499.58N), and that marking the southern base-line, which had remained in situ since the end of the 2007 excavation, were left in place. However, on returning to the site at the start of the 2015 season, the pegs had been removed. The topography of the site had also altered dramatically, with the wall of wooden pallets that ran very close to the western edge of the trench having been completely removed, along with a large haystack, to the north side of which had been located the temporary benchmark. It therefore proved difficult to relocate the trench (the GPS equipment with which the trench had been located in 2014 was on a different project and was not available at all during the season), with the result that the south-west corner of the 2015 trench was located 5m to the south of that from 2014 (this was not realised until graves excavated in 2014 were re-located), meaning that it encompassed a 5m strip that was unexcavated in 2014 and largely unexcavated in 2007.
It also became apparent during the season that the new trench was not on the same alignment as the 2007 site grid (this was also the case for the 2014 trench), probably a result of the wooden peg marking the southern base-line being moved since 2007. As it was not possible to determine the trench’s relationship to the 2007 site grid with the GPS, it was decided not to use the 2007 co- ordinates (e.g. 550E, 320N) to designate the south-west corners of the 5m grid squares in the 2015 season and a letter (west-east) and number (south-north) designation was used instead, with A0 marking the south-west corner of the trench.
The trench measured 10m by 10m (this area being completely excavated) with small extensions on the west, south and east sides to allow excavation of graves that extended under the trench edges. The excavation of a narrow strip (approximately 1m north-south at the west end of the trench, widening to approximately 2 m at the east end) along the north side of the trench was also started (in order to identify the edge of the 2007 trench and “join-up” the two phases of excavation) but was not completed. The one definite and two possible grave-cuts on the south-west edge of the trench, identified in plan and section in 2014, were also relocated but time constraints did not permit their excavation.
The bench-mark established in 2014, located at the south side of the excavation area, outside the trench, was re-located and re-used in 2015. It has a height above sea-level of 284.50m (location of bench-mark at 407344.95E and 598486.60N).

Site Narrative
The whole area of the excavation was covered in a thin and sparse turf of no more than 2cm. In the previously unexcavated areas of the trench, this covered a thin (ranging from 1cm to 13 cm), dark greyish brown topsoil (090). Under the topsoil was a mid brownish grey, clayey silt layer (091), with moderate inclusions of burnt clay, tile and brick fragments and flecks, and with finds of pottery, animal bone and brick/tile. This layer was identified in 2014 as a Roman occupation layer associated with the villa rustica. All of the excavated features cut through this layer, which sloped from the west side of the site to the east, with heights at the top of the layer at the west end of the trench of around 284.10 m, and at the east end of around 284.25 m. It was very difficult to see cut-features in this material, with the appearance of human bone sometimes being the first indication that there was a feature present, with the result that all the features were horizontally truncated in the course of excavation. At the western end of the trench, this layer was approximately 30 cm thick and overlay the natural, which was composed of loose sand, gravel and pebbles. At the eastern end of the trench, it was approximately 20 cm thick and overlay a mid brownish grey sandy silt, that was completely devoid of archaeological material and probably represents an alluvial layer overlying the sand and gravel natural (which could be seen in the base of Grave 17). In the areas of the trench previously excavated in 2014, the turf covered a back-fill material (not assigned a number) of approximately 20 cm thickness, that was indistinguishable from (090) and overlay (091).
Sixteen cut features were excavated during this season, which comprised nine inhumation graves containing a single individual, a single cremation burial, and six post-holes. Context numbers were also assigned to an animal-burrow. These features are described below:
Inhumation Graves (the graves were distributed throughout the excavation area, although there was an absence of graves in squares A0 and B1:
Grave 11 (in SE of square B0). The grave cut [135] was a sub-rectangular feature, with rounded corners, orientated west-east, truncated on the eastern end by post-hole [157], with a surviving length of 0.75m, a width of 0.48m and a surviving depth of 0.10m. The grave fill (134) was a dark brownish grey clayey silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles and finds of pottery. The non-adult skeleton (SK136) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was supine and extended, with the left arm straight (the right arm was missing). Part of the torso and the left arm had been removed, possibly by animal activity, and the right lower leg and feet had been truncated by post-hole [157].
Grave 12 (in the N central part of square Z0). The grave cut [147] was a sub-rectangular feature, with rounded corners, orientated west-east and approximately 1.16 m in length, 0.49m in width and 0.08m in depth. The grave fill (148) was a dark greyish brown sandy silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The non-adult skeleton (SK149) was very poorly preserved, with only parts of the cranium and long-bones present, but was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was probably supine and extended. A silver earring, SF004, was found next to the cranium.
Grave 13 (in the NW corner of A1). The grave cut [129] was a sub-rectangular feature, with rounded corners, orientated west-east and approximately 1.31 m in length, 0.64 m in width and 0.08 m in depth. The grave fill (128) was a mid yellowish brown sandy silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles and finds of brick/tile. The non-adult skeleton (SK127) was very poorly preserved, with only parts of the cranium and mandible, some vertebrae and ribs, and fragments of long-bones being present, and was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was supine and extended.
Grave 14 (in SE of squares B-1/B0). The grave cut [145] was a sub-rectangular feature, with rounded corners, orientated west-east and approximately 1.28 m in length, 0.30m in width and 0.09 m in depth. The grave fill (144) was a dark brownish grey sandy silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles and finds of brick/tile. The non-adult skeleton (SK146) was orientated with their head at the western end of the grave and was supine and extended with the arms straight by their sides. The thoracic region, arms and hands had been disturbed by animal activity with an animal burrow located in the lower thoracic area but the skeleton was otherwise relatively well-preserved.
Grave 16 (in N of Z0/A0). The grave cut [143] was a sub- rectangular feature, with rounded corners, orientated west-east and approximately 1.70 m in length, 0.70 m in width and 0.1 3m in depth. The grave fill (142) was a mid yellowish grey sandy silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The adult skeleton (SK158) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was supine and extended with the arms straight. The cranium, mandible, pelvis and long-bones were relatively well preserved but the torso and hands and feet were poorly preserved or absent.
Grave 17 (in the W centre of B0). The grave cut [160] was a sub-rectangular feature, with rounded corners, orientated west- east and approximately 1.80 m in length, 0.60m in width and 0.16 m in depth. The grave fill (159) was a dark greyish brown sandy silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The adult skeleton (SK161) was orientated with their head at the western end of the grave and was supine and extended, with the left arm flexed at the elbow and the hand on the pelvis and the right arm straight. The skeleton was well preserved, although there was an animal burrow in the thoracic region, with the vertebrae disturbed and some ribs missing.
Grave 18 (in S of square B1/B2). The western side of the grave cut [154] had been removed during excavation but the surviving eastern end was sub-rectangular with rounded corners, and approximately 0.64 m north-south, 0.57 m east-west, and 0.10 m in depth. The eastern end of the grave was also slightly truncated by grave cut [165]. The grave fill (153) was a dark brownish grey clayey silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The non-adult skeleton (SK155) was disarticulated and incomplete, possibly partly as a result of the truncation by cut [165] of Grave 19 (some skeletal elements were found in the fill of this grave), although this would not explain the disarticulation of the bone in the western end of the grave. It therefore has to be suggested that this individual was buried in a disarticulated state, either because the remains had been moved from elsewhere, or because of a delay between death and burial.
Grave 19 (in SW corner of square B2). The grave cut [165] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners, orientated west-east. It was truncated on the eastern end by a feature that was unexcavated in 2015, possibly another grave, with the surviving length being approximately 1.45 m. The feature was also approximately 0.56m in width and 0.10m in depth. The grave fill (164) was a mid greyish brown clayey silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The adult skeleton (SK166) was orientated with their head at the western end of the grave and was supine, with the legs slightly bent to the left, and with the arms straight. The skeleton was relatively well preserved, although the lower legs and feet had been truncated and the majority of the hands were absent.
Grave 20 (in N of square B-1/C-1). The grave cut [163] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners, orientated west- east and approximately 1.98 m in length, 0.62m in width and 0.25 m in depth. The grave fill (162) was a dark greyish brown clayey silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The adult skeleton (SK167) was orientated with their head at the western end of the grave and was supine and extended with the arms straight. The skeleton was relatively well preserved, although the left hand and feet were poorly preserved.
Cremation Grave. Grave 15 (in east end of square Z0/ Z1). The grave cut [151] was truncated on the south side during excavation, with the surviving part being sub-circular, with an east- west measurement of 0.42 m, a north-south measurement of 0.20 m and a surviving depth of 0.13 m. The grave fill (150) was a dark brownish grey clayey silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The cremated bone (152) was contained within the remains of an urn (SF002), which was sitting on the base of the cut and had been horizontally truncated by modern construction activity.
Post-Holes. These were largely located in squares A1 and B1, with one also being located in square B0:
Post-Hole 131 (in W centre of square A1). The cut [131] was sub-rounded, with a west-east measurement of 0.83m, a north-south measurement of 0.55m and a depth of 0.29 m. The fill (130) was a dark brownish grey clayey silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles. The post-hole was located to the south-west of Grave 9 (excavated in 2014) and there were discussions that it may possibly have been for a burial marker, although it was probably too large and too far away from the edge of Grave 9 for this to be the case.
Post-Hole 132 (in N part of intersection of square A1/B1). The cut [132] was sub-rounded, with a west-east measurement of 0.71 m, a north-south measurement of 0.47m and a depth of 0.26m. The fill (126) was a dark greyish brown clayey silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles.
Post-Hole 138 (in SE corner of square A1). The cut [138] was sub-rounded, with a north-south measurement of 0.69 m, an east- west measurement of 0.50 m and a depth of 0.19 m. The fill (137) was a mid yellowish brown sandy silt, with inclusions of rounded pebbles.
Post-Hole 139 (in S centre of square B1). The cut [139] was sub-rounded, although disturbed on the southern end by an animal burrow, with a north-south measurement of 0.46 m, an east-west measurement of 0.69 m and a depth of 0.21 m. The fill (133) was a dark greyish brown clayey silt, with inclusions of rounded pebbles and charcoal.
Post-Hole 141 (in N centre of square B1). The cut [141] was sub-rounded with gently sloping outer walls and a smaller vertically sided inner cut. The outer cut was 0.55 m in diameter with a depth of
0.12 m, and the inner cut was 0.26 m in diameter. The fill (140) was a dark greyish brown sandy silt, with large rounded pebbles surrounded by smaller rounded pebbles in the base (possibly evidence for post- packing).
Post-Hole 157 (in SE corner of square B0). The cut [157] was sub-rounded with a diameter of 0.40 m and a depth of 0.27 m. The fill (156) was a dark brownish grey clayey silt with no inclusions.
Animal Burrows. There were a number of animal burrows and other areas of animal disturbance throughout the area of excavation but the majority of these were not assigned any context numbers as they contained no finds. The exception is described below:
Animal Burrow (in centre of B0/B1). The cut [125] was irregular with a maximum east-west measurement of 1.78 m, a maximum north-south measurement of 0.70 m and a depth of 0.12 m. The fill (124) was a light brownish grey sandy silt with inclusions of rounded pebbles and disarticulated human bone.
Rezumat
English Abstract The nine inhumation graves encountered in this season’s excavation, all of which are orientated west-east, form part of the previously excavated 11th–12th century cemetery, with the silver earring (SF004) being very similar in form to those previously found. The graves are all cut through a Roman occupation layer associated with the villa rustica, which is situated approximately 10m outside the western edge of the trench. A number of the graves had suffered from some disturbance from animal activity. The one cremation burial was also similar in form to those found in 2007, although it had been very heavily truncated by modern construction activity, and seems to be part of the 8th – the first half of the 9th century cemetery. The post-holes formed a cluster in the north-east part of the trench and seemed to be in a curvi-linear alignment, with an outlier on the western edge. The majority of the post-holes are located in an area that is devoid of burials and this may suggest that they relate to a structure within the cemetery that was contemporary with the burials. One of the post-holes [157] did cut through a burial (Grave 11), although its appearance was different to the others and it may be modern in origin.

Potential for 2016 excavation season
- The excavation area should be extended to the east to further investigate the possible post-hole structure.
- The strip between the 2015 trench and the 2007 excavation area should be completely excavated, in order to resolve the alignment issues between the two areas and to “join-up” the excavations, ensuring all features are identified and excavated.
- The trench should be extended to the west to allow excavation of the grave cuts identified in 2014.
Bibliografie DIACONESCU 2012 : Al. Diaconescu, Juc-Herghelie. O fermă în interiorul anticei Napoca şi aprovizionarea cu cai a armatei romane. Bibl. Mus. Napocensis 39. Cluj-Napoca: Mega.
DIANA, MEŞTER 2013: A. Diana, M. Meşter, Meeting an Early Medieval Community: A Preliminary Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Jucu Cemetery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania). MCA 9,
2013, p. 199–218.
STANCIU 2014: I. Stanciu, A Well from the Early medieval Settlement at Jucu de Sus (Cluj County, North–Western Transylvania). In: S. Cociş (Hrsg.), Archäologische Beiträge. Gedenkschrift zum hundertsten Geburtstag von Kurt Horedt. PAT 7. Cluj-Napoca: Mega, p. 325–339.
TUCKER, STANCIU ET AL. 2015: K. Tucker, I. Stanciu, K. Hunt, N. Ogden, Jucu de Sus, com. Jucu, jud. Cluj. Punct: Râtul boilor (parcul industrial TETAROM III). In: CCA 2015, p. 97–98 no. 46.
Note Bibliografice (25) Details in STANCIU 2014, 325–327, 325 fig. 1, 326 fig. 2; TUCKER, STANCIU ET AL. 2015, 97–98. For the Roman structure see DIACONESCU 2012.
(26) Diana, Meşter 2013.
Sursa   Cronica cercetărilor arheologice din România
Editor   INP
Limba   RO


Copyright: autorii rapoartelor și Institutul Național al Patrimoniului, CIMEC, 2020.
Coordonator: Bogdan Şandric. Documentarişti-analişti: Alina Iancu, Iuliana Damian, Oana Borlean. Consultant: Irina Oberländer Târnoveanu. Proiectare ASP şi HTML: Cosmin Miu