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Cronica cercetărilor arheologice din România, 1983 - 2012.
Rapoarte preliminare de cercetare arheologică

Raport de cercetare arheologică

Jucu de Sus | Judeţ: Cluj | Punct: Râtul boilor (parcul industrial TETAROM III) | Anul: 2019

Anul   2019
Epoca
Epoca migraţiilor (sec. IV-VI)
Perioade
Epoca migraţiilor
Categorie
Neatribuit
Tipuri de sit
Locuire
Localizare pe hartă   Localizează pe harta României
Judet   Cluj
Localitate   Jucu de Sus
Comuna   Jucu
Punct
Râtul boilor (parcul industrial TETAROM III)
Sector   
Toponim   
Persoane implicate și instituții
NumePrenumerolInstituție
Beck Sammi
Crowther Matthew
Filipek Kori-Lea University of Durham, UK
Kohnle Cassidi
Loeffelmann Tessi
Ogden Nick
Oliverson Megan
Stanciu Ioan Institutul de Arheologie şi Istoria Artei, Cluj-Napoca
Tucker Katie University of Winchester
Cod RAN    58268.05
Raport Project Background
This report details the excavation carried out on the site of Jucu de Sus, Cluj, Transylvania, Romania, between the 9th July and the 9th August 2019. The site of Jucu de Sus is located 21km north east of Cluj-Napoca and is situated on the floodplain, 500m to the north west of the Someşul Mic River. The site was identified and partially excavated in 2007 prior to the construction of the Nokia industrial park (the site is now occupied by a solar farm). The excavation identified a Roman period villa rustica, an 8th century settlement, limited evidence for the location of an 11th-12th century settlement, and a cemetery that partially overlay and truncated the walls of the Roman buildings. Fifty-seven inhumation burials were excavated from the cemetery that were thought, on the basis of the associated artefacts (copper alloy and iron earrings), to be associated with the 11th-12th century settlement, although human remains associated with the 8th century settlement were also identified, in the form of thirteen cremation burials, both urned and un-urned, which appeared to be located around the periphery of the inhumation cemetery. It is estimated that around 1000 burials remain to be excavated from the site and it is possible that some of the burials are associated with the 8th-9th century settlement. A preliminary analysis was undertaken of the inhumation burials, which identified individuals belonging to all age groups from infant to mature adult, and both males and females. A number of pathological conditions were also identified, including dental disease, degenerative joint disease, metabolic disease, infectious disease and trauma (Diana and Meşter 2013).
The 2014-18 seasons of excavation have recovered the remains of thirty-seven inhumed individuals and three cremations (Tucker 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018). The skeletal analysis of these has been underway since the 2014 season. The re-analysis of the remains from the 2007 excavation has also been in progress since the 2015 season, although a large number of the individuals known to have been excavated and included in the preliminary skeletal analysis are currently missing.

The Site
The aims of the 2019 season, revised since writing of the 2018 report, were to complete the excavation of squares C0, C1 and C2, which had been partially excavated in the 2014 (surface burials in squares C1 and C2 and a small extension in square C0), 2016 (a small extension in square C2), and 2018 (a small extension in square C0). As was the case in previous seasons, on arriving at site the limits of excavation of A0, A1, B0 and B1 (excavated in 2015) and A-1, B-1 and C-1 (excavated in 2018) were clearly visible and these were used to mark out the new excavation area.
By the end of the 2019 season, square C0 had been almost completely excavated, although a burial with in situ Roman tiles (not given context numbers this season) remains to be excavated and small areas of the square require some further investigation to confirm that no further features are present. In squares C1 and C2, time constraints meant that only a few features could be excavated. At the end of the season, the entirety of the trench was covered with a layer of semi-permeable fabric and then backfilled, to enable excavation of the squares to continue in the 2020 season.
The temporary bench-mark established in 2016 on the north-east corner of the large storage building to the south of the excavation area, with a height above sea-level of 284.97m, was reused again this season.
Site Narrative
The whole area of the excavation was covered in a layer of turf of approximately 5-10 cm thickness, with the ground surface varying from a height above sea-level of 284.24m at the south-west corner of square C0, 284.38 m at the north-west corner of square C2, 284.44 m at the north-east corner of square C2, and 284.57 m at the south-east corner of square C0. This covered a thin (approx. 0.07 m), mid greyish brown clayey silt topsoil (290). Under the topsoil was a mid brownish grey clayey silt layer (291), with frequent inclusions of small and medium sized rounded pebbles and flecks and fragments of Roman tile, and finds of pottery and animal bone. This layer was identified in 2018 as being associated with the abandonment phase of the villa rustica. All of the features, with the exception of the Roman building excavated in 2018, cut through this layer, which was approx. 0.15 m thick. It is very difficult to see cut-features in this layer and therefore all identified features were horizontally truncated to some degree in the course of excavation. The identification of features was also hampered this season by the presence of a mixed redeposited layer of (291) and alluvial silt overlying (291) on the eastern side of the trench that had almost certainly been moved there during groundworks associated with the construction of the solar farm. The boundary between these two layers was not visible during excavation. Layer (291) overlay a mid brownish grey sandy silt, completely devoid of archaeological material, that probably represents an alluvial deposit. The base of all features excavated this season cut into but not through this layer. This is further support for the conclusion from previous seasons that this deposit is much thicker towards the east end of the site, as a number of features excavated in previous seasons and located further to the west have cut into the deposit below, which is composed of loose sand, gravel and pebbles.
Eight features were completely excavated during this season, comprising six single inhumation graves, an animal burrow that contained human remains and was assigned a burial number, and a grave from the 2007 excavation. Four graves that had been excavated in 2014, the 2007 excavation trench, the extension into square C2 excavated in 2016, and the extension into square C0 excavated in 2018 were also identified but not excavated. These features are described below:

Inhumation Graves
Burial 42 (in the south-east corner of square C1)
The grave cut [292] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners, with the west end being disturbed by animal burrowing. The sides were moderate to shallow and the base was slightly concave and sloping towards the east, with a height of 284.23 m at the west end and 284.26 m at the east end. It was orientated very slightly southwest to northeast, with a length of 1.37 m, a maximum width of 0.60 m, and a surviving depth of 0.10 m. The grave fill (294) was a mid brownish grey clayey silt, with frequent inclusions of small river pebbles and medium angular stones, moderate inclusions of flecks and small fragments of tile, and finds of pottery and animal bone. The non-adult skeleton (SK293) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was supine and extended with the arms by the sides of the body. The skeleton was only moderately preserved, with horizontal truncation of the cranium that had almost certainly occurred during the groundworks prior to the construction of the solar farm, and absence of much of the torso and pelvis, hands and feet (Figure 1). The cranium was at a height of 284.33 m, with the feet at 284.28 m. A glass melon bead (SF24) was found in the north-east corner of the grave.
Burial 44 (in the east of square C0)
The grave cut [302] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners, with the east end extending under the edge of the excavation trench. The sides were shallow and concave at the east end of the grave and shallow and straight at the west, and the base was slightly sloping to the north-east corner, with a height of 284.07 m at the west end and 284.09 m at the east end. It was orientated very slightly southwest to northeast, with a length of 1.03 m, a maximum width of 0.45 m, and a surviving depth of 0.18 m. The grave fill (303) was a mid brownish grey clayey silt with moderate inclusions of small to medium sized river pebbles and flecks and fragments of tile, and finds of pottery. The non-adult skeleton (SK305) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was supine and extended with the arms straight by the sides. The skeleton was poorly preserved and highly fragmentary with absence of parts of the torso, the hands and most of the feet (Figure 2). The cranium was at a height of 284.18 m, with the feet at 284.13 m. Twelve glass beads (SF27.2-13) were found on the superior part of the torso, with another bead of the same type (SF27.1) being found on the inferior part of the torso (Figure 3). Two copper alloy rings (SF28, SF29) were found on the right side of the torso in the same area as the beads (Figure 3), with a third (SF30) being found close to the left ilium (Figure 4).

Burial 45 (in the north-east corner of square C1)
The grave cut [307] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners, with the east end accidentally truncated during excavation. The sides were steep and concave at the west end and steep and straight at the east end, and the base was concave and slightly sloping towards the east, with a height of 284.14 m at the west end, 284.13 m at the east end, and 284.10 m in the centre. It was orientated west-east, with a length of 1.07 m, a maximum width of 0.58 m, and a surviving depth of 0.19 m. The grave fill (308) was a mid brownish grey clayey silt with frequent inclusions of rounded and subangular small stones and flecks of tile, and finds of pottery, and unassociated human bone (including a partial non-adult cranium). The non-adult skeleton (SK295) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was supine and extended. The skeleton was poorly preserved with some bones of the torso and arms being found disarticulated in the fill, and with absence of the majority of the torso, arms, right leg, and the hands and feet (Figure 5). There was an animal burrow that ran through the grave from the south-east to the north-west and the disarticulation and absence of skeletal elements can almost certainly be ascribed to this disturbance. It is possible that some skeletal elements from this individual were excavated from Burial 43 (described below), which was the designation given to an animal burrow containing human bone located just to the north and that was connected to the burrow that truncated this burial. The cranium was at a height of 284.30 m, with the distal end of the left tibia at 284.21 m.
Burial 46 (in the west of square C0)
The grave cut [300] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners. The sides were steep and concave at the west end and shallow and concave at the east end, and the base was flat, with a height of 284.18 m. It was orientated west-east, with a length of 1.36 m, a maximum width of 0.68 m, and a surviving depth of 0.10 m. The grave fill (301) was a mid greyish brown clayey silt with moderate inclusions of small to medium rounded pebbles and small fragments and flecks of tile, and finds of pottery. The non-adult skeleton (SK306) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave and was supine and extended. The skeleton was relatively well preserved, although the majority of the torso and arms had been displaced and were found around the cranium, almost certainly as a result of animal disturbance, and the hands and feet were absent (Figure 6). The cranium was at a height of 284.27 m, with the distal end of the tibia at 284.21 m. A silver coin (SF26) was found just to the east of the mandible (Figure 7).
Burial 47 (in the east of square C0)
The grave cut [314] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners. The sides were near vertical with slight concavity of those at the east end, and the base was slightly concave, with a height of 284.14 m at the west and east ends, and 284.12 m in the centre. It was orientated very slightly southwest to northeast, with a length of 0.90 m, a maximum width of 0.40 m, and a surviving depth of 0.04 m. The grave fill (315) was a mid brownish grey clayey silt, with frequent inclusions of small to medium rounded and subangular pebbles, and moderate inclusions of small fragments and flecks of tile. The non-adult skeleton (SK316) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave, and was supine and extended with the humeri straight by the sides. The skeleton was very poorly preserved, with absence of the torso and pelvis, distal upper limbs, right femur, and hands and feet (Figure 8). The cranium was at a height of 284.19 m, with the distal tibia at 284.16 m.
Burial 48 (in the north-east corner of square C0)
The grave cut [310] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners. The sides were steep and straight on the south side and moderate and concave on the north side, and the base was sloping from the west and east ends towards the centre, with a height of 284.11 m at the west end, 284.08 m at the east end, and 284.02 m in the centre. It was orientated southwest to northeast, with a length of 2.06 m, a maximum width of 0.64 m, and a surviving depth of 0.20 m. The grave fill (311) was a dark brownish grey clayey silt, with frequent inclusions of medium rounded pebbles, and frequent flecks of tile. The adult skeleton (SK309) was orientated with their head at the west end of the grave, and was supine and extended with the left arm slightly flexed at the elbow and the hand on the pelvis, and the right arm straight by the side. The skeleton was relatively well preserved, although the left radius was displaced and part of the torso and hands were absent, almost certainly as the result of animal disturbance (Figure 9). The cranium was at a height of 284.21 m, with the feet at 284.12 m.
Animal Burrow
Burial 43 (in the south of square C2)
The cut [296] was an oval feature with burrows running to the northwest from the north side and southeast from the south side (this burrow extended into Burial 45). The sides were near vertical and straight on the south side and moderate and concave on the north side, and the base was concave and slightly sloping to the south, with a height of 284.23 m at the west end, and 284.22 m at the east end. It was orientated west-east, with a length of 0.61 m, a maximum width of 0.41 m, and a surviving depth of 0.07 m. The fill (297) was a mid brownish grey clayey silt with frequent small to medium rounded pebbles, infrequent limestone fragments, and moderate flecks and fragments of tile. The fill also contained disarticulated human bones, including a partial non-adult cranium and mandible and adult foot bones (Figure 10). It is possible that some of these bones may have been displaced from Burial 45. The cranium was at a height of 284.26 m. An iron nail (SF25) was found in the west end of the feature.
Other Features
M.05 (2007 grave) (in the west of square C1)
The cut [298] was a sub-rectangular feature with rounded corners. The sides were moderate and concave, apart from at the west end, where they were vertical and straight, and the base was flat and slightly sloping to the west end, with a height of 284.13 m at the east end and 284.07 m at the west end. It was orientated south-west to north-east, with a length of 1.78 m, a maximum width of 0.61 m, and a surviving depth of 0.17 m. The fill (299) was a mid brownish grey silty clay, with inclusions of moderate large subangular stones and large pebbles, and finds of pottery, tile, and human and animal bone.
2007 trench (in the north of square C2)
The cut [304] was a linear feature with a north-south measurement of 1.36 m that extended under the edges of excavation on the north, west and east sides but was not excavated further. The fill (312) was a mid greyish brown clayey silt with inclusions of frequent small to medium rounded and subangular stones and fragments and flecks of tile.
2016 trench extension (in the west of square C2)
The cut [313] was a square feature with square corners, with a north-south measurement of 2 m and a west-east measurement of 2 m but was not excavated further. The fill (317) was a light to mid greyish brown clayey silt with inclusions of frequent small to medium rounded and sub-angular stones.
2018 trench extension (in the south of square C0)
The cut [318] was a rectangular feature with square corners, with a west-east measurement of 2.5 m, a north-south measurement of 0.50 m, and a depth of 0.20 m, but was not excavated further. The fill (319) was a light greyish brown clayey silt with inclusions of frequent small to medium rounded and subangular stones and flecks and fragments of tile.
2014 graves
The grave cuts for Burial 1 [094], 4 [103], 5 [106], and 7 [112], excavated in 2014, were reidentified in square C2. They were not re-excavated but the cuts (as they could be seen by the end of the season, which may not be completely accurate due to weathering of the site surface) of Burials 4, 5 and 7 were included on the final site plan. The location of Burials 1 and 4 were consistent with where they are located on the combined site plan, but those of Burials 5 and 7 appear to be shifted 0.3-0.4 m to the south in relation to other excavated features. It will be necessary as part of the 2020 excavation season to relocate and accurately plan these features in order to determine whether their currently plotted location is incorrect.

Site Summary and Discussion
The revised adjectives for the 2019 excavation season were only partially fulfilled due to time constraints, with the excavation of square C0 almost completed and some features excavated from squares C1 and C2.
The six inhumation graves excavated this season, four of which (B.42, B.44, B.47, B.48) were orientated slightly south-west to north-east, and two of which (B.45, B.46) were orientated west-east, form part of the previously excavated 11th-12th century cemetery. It is interesting that all but one of the burials excavated this season were of non-adults. The 2007 excavation also found a number of non-adults in the same area, which may suggest a degree of zoning within the cemetery. The copper alloy rings (SF28, 29, 30) found in association with Burial 44 are very similar in type to those found with the burials of adults in previous excavation seasons, although the glass beads (SF27) found with the burial are unusual. The fact that these were found in association with a non-adult, as was the glass melon bead (SF24, found with Burial 42), and the first coin found at the site (SF26, found with Burial 46) -nota 1-, could be used to suggest that non-adults were buried with more unusual objects of personal adornment than were adults. This had already been postulated during the 2017 excavation season with the burial of an adolescent (Burial 34) being accompanied by a finger ring (SF13), and stone and rock crystal beads (SF14), as well as a copper alloy earring (SF15).
A grave excavated in 2007 was identified in square C1 and when combined with the location of the 2007 excavation trench in square C2 and a 2007 grave found in square Z0 in 2017, it was possible to identify this as M.05. The grave was re-excavated and included on the final site plan, with the intention that this data can be used to locate the 2007 excavation trenches in relation to the current excavations.
The reestablishment of the TBM in 2018 allowed accurate heights above sea level to be recorded for all features this season. The heights of the current ground surface, as identified in 2018, indicates that it rises towards the east and south of the site and it was argued that this was probably a result of the disturbance of the site by heavy machinery during the construction of the solar farm. This was confirmed this season by the identification of a redeposited mixed layer overlying the abandonment layer (291) on the eastern side of the trench. The heights of the crania of the burials excavated from square C1 and C2 this season were also very similar, suggesting that the graves were cut to a standard depth from a relatively flat original ground surface. The heights of the crania from the burials in square C0 were also relatively similar to one another but approximately 0.10m lower than in squares C1 and C2, whilst those in squares A-1, B-1 and C-1 (excavated in 2018) were also similar to one another but a further 0.10m lower. This suggests that the original ground surface was relatively flat west-east but rose from the south to the north.

Aims for 2020 Excavation Season
To complete the excavation of squares C0, C1 and C2
To re-identify the edges of Burials 1, 4, 5 and 7 and accurately plan these to conclusively determine whether they are currently plotted correctly on the combined plan.

Human Skeletal Analyses and Summary
By the end of the 2019 excavation season, 38/43 of the skeletal remains from the Transylvania Bioarchaeology and Institute of Archaeology and Art History (Cluj-Napoca) excavations have been analysed, with several avenues of further investigations underway. Five individuals excavated from the 2019 season were processed for analysis for the 2020 field season. To date, of the remains excavated under the current project design, the breakdown of biological sex is 13 males, 9 females, and 10 indeterminable.
Table 1. Age-at-death categories for individuals buried at Jucu

AGE # Individuals
Infant (<1 year) 4
Child (<12 years) 10
Adolescent (13-18) 2
Young-Young Middle Adults (19-35) 12
Middle-Middle Older Adults (36-45) 3
Older Adult (46+) 5
General Adult (Indeterminable) 2


The average stature of the individuals excavated remains 165 cm for the males and significantly higher than previous seasons for the females (156.35 cm average). This is primarily due to the inclusion of stature data for Burials 26 and 37, who were approximately 10-13 cm taller than the previous female average of 151.4 cm. This could indicate that Burials 26 and 37 are genetically different from the average Jucu female, that they had better access to foodstuffs, or potentially from a different time period altogether.
Several types of disease and trauma continue to be recorded in the human skeletal remains, with many skeletons exhibiting numerous concurring conditions at the time of death. In the 38 individuals of mixed age and sex were 13 individuals with joint disease, 20 individuals with dental disease, including activity-based wear facets, 24 individuals showing signs of metabolic disease, 13 instances of congenital disease, 18 individuals with signs of active or healing infections, 3 individuals with neoplastic disease (benign), and 12 individuals showing trauma. It is important to note that in children and infants, the differences between metabolic conditions and infections can be difficult to determine given the poor preservation of their remains. As such, both must be considered.
During the 2019 skeletal analyses of the individuals excavated by Transylvania Bioarchaeology, 3/5 individuals were children (<12 years) at the age of death, although non-adult mortality is common under the age of four years due to a variety of biocultural factors.
Of interest was the adult skeleton of Burial 37. Burial 37 was an elderly adult female (60+) who presented with cystic lesions on the endocranial surface of the right greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The lesions correspond the superficial inferior cerebral veins, possibly indicating a circulatory disturbance in the brain in later life. Other human remains analyses present a range of infective and congenital pathologies that would have required palliative care and a support network. The presence of these disorders in the Jucu de Sus Necropolis suggests, along with previous evidence of advanced medical treatment (Filipek et al. 2017), that the medical knowledge at Jucu during this time period is far advanced beyond any evidence in Europe.


Radiocarbon dates
Samples for radiocarbon dating were taken from Burials 26, M60, and M72 and sent to Beta Analytical Ltd. Results from all three burials reveal a very confined timeline of 1016-1154 calAD, with a clear spike from 1070-1154 calAD. This indicates a likely period of use of less than 75 years for the Medieval portion of the Jucu de Sus Necropolis.

Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Analyses
In the analytical process for radiocarbon dating, information about carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios can also be obtained from extracted collagen. The collagen yields and C:N ratios from Burials 26, M60, and M72 fall within the accepted parameters indicative of good preservation, with results in Table 2. The results indicate that the people at Jucu consumed a mainly terrestrial diet fairly low in animal protein, likely complemented by freshwater fish, which accounts for the level of 13C enrichment also observed.

Burials δ13C (‰) δ15N (‰) C:N Wt %C Wt %N
M60 -17.5 9.62 2.9 39.18 15.63
M72 -18.6 9 3.1 38.47 14.58
B26 -18.3 9.42 3.2 41.77 15.20


Human Remains Summary and Discussion
As more skeletal analyses are undertaken, a larger view of health and disease in Jucu is starting to develop. Additionally, skeletons from the previous 2007 excavations are being reanalysed to be incorporated into the larger data set as a number of errors were discovered from the previous (Diana and Meşter 2013) publication. It appears as there is a normal mortality curve with regard to higher numbers of small children and older adults. The pathologies present on the human remains indicate high levels of metabolic stress amongst the children, and chronic infectious diseases amongst the adults. Radiocarbon dates from site place the inhumations from Jucu within the 1016-1154 AD time period, with a clear spike for all individuals between 1070-1154 AD, implying the cemetery was only used for 1-2 generations. Stable isotope analyses suggest the diet was mainly terrestrial, with an added component of freshwater fish. The Jucu de Sus necropolis holds great potential to understand certain changes and continuities in practice in the Transylvanian Basin. Excavations and subsequent analyses such as these will better the understanding of culture and health in the past and present.

Potential for 2020 and Beyond
· Analyse the individuals from the 2019 Field Season
· Obtain radiocarbon dates from the horse
· Test for copper toxicity amongst children buried at Jucu
· Examine dietary differences between children and adults
· Radiogenic strontium analyses on the cremations to determine origins
Rezumat
English Abstract
Bibliografie Blevins, K., Filipek, K.L., Tucker, K., Stanciu, I., Lanigan, L., et al. 2016. The Straw that Broke their Backs: Patterns of spinal trauma in medieval males from the Jucu de Sus necropolis (Transylvania). 18th Annual Conference for the British Association of Biological Anthropology: Kent, UK
Blevins, K., Filipek, K.L., Tucker, K., Stanciu, I., Lanigan, L., Snyder, J., Oliverson, M.O. 2018. Cemetery Structure and Trauma in the Jucu de Sus Necropolis (Transylvania). Annual Meeting for the Paleopathology Association: Austin (USA).
Diana, A and Mester, M. 2013. Meeting an Early Medieval Community: A Preliminary Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Jucu Cemetery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania), in Dobrescu, R (ed.) Materiale si Certetari Arheologice 2013. Editura Academiei Romane: Bucharest p.199-218
Filipek, K. L. 2015. Jucu de Sus Human Remains Analyses: 2014-15 excavation season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology Report.
Filipek, K.L. 2016. Jucu de Sus Human Remains Analyses: 2015-16 excavation season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology Report.
Filipek, K.L. 2017. Jucu de Sus Human Remains Analyses: 2016-17 excavation season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology Report.
Filipek, K.L. 2018. Jucu de Sus Human Remains Analyses: 2017-18 excavation season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology Report.
Filipek, K.L., Errickson, D., Crowther, M., Tucker, K., Stanciu, I., Lanigan, L. Blevins, K., Snyder, J., Oliverson, M.O., et al. (2017). Beyond the Cutting Edge: High-resolution digital analysis of potential lacerations from the Jucu de Sus Necropolis (Transylvania). 19th Annual Conference for the British Associate of Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology: Liverpool, UK.
Filipek, Tucker, Stanciu et al. 2019: Jucu de Sus, com. Jucu, jud. Cluj. Punct: „Râtul boilor” (parcul industrial TETAROM III). CCA 2019, p. 69–73, no. 38.
Hunt, K., Filipek, K.L., Stanciu, I., Tucker, K., Crowder, K. et al. 2015. Burials and Bodies: Patterns of treatment, pathology, and demography in the Jucu de Sus Necropolis, Transylvania (5th-12th centuries AD). 17th Annual BABAO Conference: Sheffield, UK.
Illsley, W. 2013. Desk Based Assessment: Jucu de Sus. Unpublished report Stanciu, I. 2014a. A Well from the Early Medieval Settlement at Jucu de Sus (Cluj County, North-Western Transylvania), in Cocis, S (ed.) Archäologische Beiträge: Gedenkschrift zum Hundertsten Geburtstag von Kurt Horedt. Mega Verlag: Cluj-Napoca p.325-339 Stanciu, I. 2014b. Welcome to Transylvania: The Archaeological Site of Jucu, near the Cluj City. Presentation delivered to Transylvania Bioarchaeology Fieldschool 2014 Tschinkel, K. Filipek, K.L., Tucker, K., Stanciu, I. Hunt, K., Snyder, J., Oliverson, M.O., et al. (2016). Working Land and Eating Bland: physiological trends in early Slavic migrants from the Jucu de Sus Necropolis (Transylvania, Romania). 43rd Annual Meeting of the Palaeopathology Association.
Tucker, K. 2014. Jucu de Sus Medieval Cemetery, Cluj, Transylvania, Romania: Excavation Report for 2014 Season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology report Tucker, K. 2015. Jucu de Sus Medieval Cemetery, Cluj, Transylvania, Romania: Excavation Report for 2015 Season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology report Tucker, K. 2016. Jucu de Sus Medieval Cemetery, Cluj, Transylvania, Romania: Excavation Report for 2016 Season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology report
Tucker, K. 2017. Jucu de Sus Medieval Cemetery, Cluj, Transylvania, Romania: Excavation Report for 2017 Season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology report
Tucker, K. 2018. Jucu de Sus Medieval Cemetery, Cluj Napoca, Transylvania, Romania: Excavation Report for 2018 Season. Unpublished Transylvania Bioarchaeology report.
Note Bibliografice 1.It was dated in the second part of the reign of Ladislau I (1077-1095). The determination belongs to Dr. Keve László (Târgu Mureş County Museum).
Sursa   Cronica cercetărilor arheologice din România
Editor   INP
Limba   RO


Copyright: autorii rapoartelor și Institutul Național al Patrimoniului, CIMEC, 2020.
Coordonator: Bogdan Şandric. Documentarişti-analişti: Alina Iancu, Iuliana Damian, Oana Borlean. Consultant: Irina Oberländer Târnoveanu. Proiectare ASP şi HTML: Cosmin Miu